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Journal Articles Cahiers Agricultures Year : 2012

Les nouvelles frontières de la sécurité alimentaire. Une réflexion prospective


The struggle against food and nutrition insecurity has achieved relative successes during the past few decades: the widespread use of technical innovations (in risks prediction, in agricultural intensification or in ready-to-use therapeutic foods) has been combined with the reshaping of the political and humanitarian environment. But, as risky situations and food crises are going on, these sectorial actions are no longer functional and effective. These "new or variant food crisis" are more difficult to anticipate and more complex to resolve because of multi-dimensional and multi-level scales, because of unpredictable interactions between risks, perceptions and actions, and also because of competition between actors. The challenges concerning food securitization are so important that revising our way of thinking has now become a must. This led us to reverse the perspective and to no longer consider the fight against food insecurity in terms of quantified targets and standards but rather as a process made of uncertainties, trials and errors, and of various arrangements owing to existing power relations. Using the concept of "food securitization" seems more appropriate to give a full account of the diverse achievements as well as of the remaining challenges in this broadened field of inquiries, which encompasses the agro-environmental issue (related to future effects of climate change), the nutritional sphere, as well as problems of rights, inequality, vulnerability and resilience.
La lutte contre l'insécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle a connu des succès relatifs au cours des décennies passées en Afrique subsaharienne, grâce à certaines innovations techniques et à la mobilisation de nouveaux acteurs. Mais, avec la pérennisation des situations " à risque ", la complexification des contextes " de crise ", les interactions imprévues et les changements " d'échelle ", les effets de telles actions s'avèrent de plus en plus limités. Les enjeux globalisés et renouvelés de la sécurité alimentaire (convergence entre droits, capacités, inégalités, vulnérabilités,...) en appellent non seulement à la mise au point de nouveaux instruments techniques et politiques mais plus encore à un changement de paradigme.
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ird-00734440 , version 1 (21-10-2012)


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Pierre Janin, Sandrine Dury. Les nouvelles frontières de la sécurité alimentaire. Une réflexion prospective. Cahiers Agricultures, 2012, 21 (5), pp.285-292. ⟨10.1684/agr.2012.0585⟩. ⟨ird-00734440⟩
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